The white sands of the region resemble the beach. Sixty million years ago, the area was once at the bottom of the sea but slowly turned into the valley at the bootom of the Mantiqueira Mountain. It is the largest outcrap of quartzite in the world.
Quartzite is classified as a metamorphic rock, a type of rock that underwent alterations due to high pressure and/or temperatures. Quartz is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth and forms the base for Quartzite. Because of its permeability to water, quartzite is slow to erode and forms the canyons and caves in the region. It is one of the causes for
the unique color in the water because it allows organic particles to be carried from the ground into the water. This rock is a good conductor of electricity. This region has some of the highest incidences of lightning on the planet.
The altitudes of the region range from 900m (valley of the Farmer’s New House) to 1,500 (Hawk Peak) all the way to 1,800m, (Lombada), the highest point of Ibitpoca State Park.